Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium Linné) Improves Obesity by Regulating Adipogenesis and Thermogenesis through AMPK Activation.
Nutrients. 2019 Aug 22 ;11(9). Epub 2019 Aug 22. PMID: 31443565
Obesity is a global health threat. Herein, we evaluated the underlying mechanism of anti-obese features of bitter orange (Linné, CA). Eight-week-administration of CA in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significant decrease of body weight, adipose tissue weight and serum cholesterol. In further in vitro studies, we observed decreased lipid droplets in CA-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha indicated CA-inhibited adipogenesis. Moreover, CA-treated primary cultured brown adipocytes displayed increased differentiation associated with elevation of thermogenic factors including uncoupling protein 1 and PPARγ coactivator 1 alpha as well. The effects of CA in both adipocytes were abolished in AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα)-suppressed environments, suggesting the anti-adipogenic and pro-thermogenic actions of CA were dependent on AMPKα pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest CA as a potential anti-obese agent which regulates adipogenesis and thermogenesis via AMPKα.