Inhibitory Effects of Black Ginseng on Particulate Matter-Induced Pulmonary Injury.
Am J Chin Med. 2019 ;47(6):1237-1251. Epub 2019 Sep 9. PMID: 31495180
Inhalation of fine particulate matter () is associated with elevated pulmonary injury caused by the loss of vascular barrier integrity. Black ginseng (BG), steamed and dried ginseng nine times, exhibits various pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antihyperglycemic, anti-atopic, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of black ginseng extract (BGE) against PM-induced lung endothelial cell (EC) barrier disruption and pulmonary inflammation. Permeability, leukocyte migration, activation of proinflammatory proteins, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and histology were examined in-treated ECs and mice. BGE significantly scavenged-induced ROS and inhibited the ROS-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Concurrently, BGE activated Akt, which helped maintain endothelial integrity. Furthermore, BGE reduced vascular protein leakage, leukocyte infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine release in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in PM-induced lung tissues. These results indicated that BGE may exhibit protective effects against PM-induced inflammatory lung injury and vascular hyperpermeability.