Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Black Raspberries Suppress Colorectal Cancer by Enhancing Smad4 Expression in Colonic Epithelium and Natural Killer Cells.

Abstract Source:

Front Immunol. 2020 ;11:570683. Epub 2020 Dec 14. PMID: 33424832

Abstract Author(s):

Yi-Wen Huang, Chien-Wei Lin, Pan Pan, Tianjiao Shan, Carla Elena Echeveste, Yue Yang Mo, Hsin-Tzu Wang, Mohammed Aldakkak, Susan Tsai, Kiyoko Oshima, Martha Yearsley, Jianbo Xiao, Hui Cao, Chongde Sun, Ming Du, Weibin Bai, Jianhua Yu, Li-Shu Wang

Article Affiliation:

Yi-Wen Huang


Innate immune cells in the tumor microenvironment have been proposed to control the transition from benign to malignant stages. In many cancers, increased infiltration of natural killer (NK) cells associates with good prognosis. Although the mechanisms that enable NK cells to restrain colorectal cancer (CRC) are unclear, the current study suggests the involvement of Smad4. We found suppressed Smad4 expression in circulating NK cells of untreated metastatic CRC patients. Moreover, NK cell-specific Smad4 deletion promoted colon adenomas in DSS-treatedmice and adenocarcinomas in AOM/DSS-treated mice. Other studies have shown that Smad4 loss or weak expression in colonic epithelium associates with poor survival in CRC patients. Therefore, targeting Smad4 in both colonic epithelium and NK cells could provide an excellent opportunity to manage CRC. Toward this end, we showed that dietary intervention with black raspberries (BRBs) increased Smad4 expression in colonic epithelium in patients with FAP or CRC and in the two CRC mouse models. Also, benzoate metabolites of BRBs, such as hippurate, upregulated Smad4 and Gzmb expression that might enhance the cytotoxicity of primary human NK cells. Of note, increased levels of hippurate is a metabolomic marker of a healthy gut microbiota in humans, and hippurate also has antitumor effects. In conclusion, our study suggests a new mechanism for the action of benzoate metabolites derived from plant-based foods. This mechanism could be exploited clinically to upregulate Smad4 in colonic epithelium and NK cells, thereby delaying CRC progression.

Study Type : In Vitro Study

Print Options

Key Research Topics

Sayer Ji
Founder of GreenMedInfo.com

Subscribe to our informative Newsletter & get Nature's Evidence-Based Pharmacy

Our newsletter serves 500,000 with essential news, research & healthy tips, daily.

Download Now

500+ pages of Natural Medicine Alternatives and Information.

This website is for information purposes only. By providing the information contained herein we are not diagnosing, treating, curing, mitigating, or preventing any type of disease or medical condition. Before beginning any type of natural, integrative or conventional treatment regimen, it is advisable to seek the advice of a licensed healthcare professional.

© Copyright 2008-2021 GreenMedInfo.com, Journal Articles copyright of original owners, MeSH copyright NLM.