Blueberry proanthocyanidins against human norovirus surrogates in model foods and under simulated gastric conditions.
Food Microbiol. 2017 May ;63:263-267. Epub 2016 Nov 30. PMID: 28040178
Blueberry proanthocyanidins (B-PAC) are known to decrease titers of human norovirus surrogates in vitro. The application of B-PAC as therapeutic or preventive options against foodborne viral illness needs to be determined using model foods and simulated gastric conditions in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiviral effect of B-PAC in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% reduced fat milk) and simulated gastrointestinal fluids against cultivable human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus; FCV-F9 and murine norovirus; MNV-1) over 24 h at 37 °C. Equal amounts of each virus (5 log PFU/ml) was mixed with B-PAC (1, 2 and 5 mg/ml) prepared either in AJ, or 2% milk, or simulated gastric fluids and incubated over 24 h at 37 °C. Controls included phosphate buffered saline, malic acid (pH 7.2), AJ, 2% milk or simulated gastric and intestinal fluids incubated with virus over 24 h at 37 °C. The tested viruses were reduced to undetectable levels within 15 min with B-PAC (1, 2 and 5 mg/ml) in AJ (pH 3.6). However, antiviral activity of B-PAC was reduced in milk. FCV-F9 was reduced by 0.4 and 1.09 log PFU/ml with 2 and 5 mg/ml B-PAC in milk, respectively and MNV-1 titers were reduced by 0.81 log PFU/ml with 5 mg/ml B-PAC in milk after 24 h. B-PACat 5 mg/ml in simulated intestinal fluid reduced titers of the tested viruses to undetectable levels within 30 min. Overall, these results show the potential of B-PAC as preventive and therapeutic options for foodborne viral illnesses.