Both wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran arabinoxylans and gut flora-mediated fermentation products protect human colon cells from genotoxic activities of 4-hydroxynonenal and hydrogen peroxide.
J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 22;54(6):2088-95. PMID: 16536580
Department of Nutritional Toxicology, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Dornburger Strasse 25, 07743 Jena, Germany. email@example.com
Dietary fibers are fermented by the gut flora to yield short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which inhibit the growth of tumor cells, induce glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and protect cells from the genotoxic activity of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). Here, we investigated effects of wheat bran-derived arabinoxylans and fermentation products on these parameters of chemoprevention. Newly isolated water extractable (WeAx) and alkali extractable arabinoxylans (AeAx) were fermented under anaerobic conditions with human feces. Resulting fermentation supernatants (FSs) were analyzed for SCFAs and used to treat HT29 colon cancer cells. Cell growth, cytotoxicity, antigenotoxicity against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or HNE, and GST activity were determined. Nonfermented WeAx decreased H2O2-induced DNA damage by 64%, thus demonstrating chemoprotective properties by this nonfermented wheat bran fiber. The fermentation of WeAx and AeAx resulted in 3-fold increases of SCFA, but all FSs (including the control without arabinoxylans) inhibited the growth of the HT29 cells, reduced the genotoxicity of HNE, and enhanced the activity of GSTs (FS WeAx, 2-fold; FS AeAx, 1.7-fold; and control FS, 1.4-fold), which detoxify HNE. Thus, increases in SCFAs were not reflected by enhanced functional effects. The conclusion is that fermentation mixtures contain modulatory compounds that arise from the feces and might add to the effectiveness of SCFAs.