Brazilian Green Propolis Rescues Oxidative Stress-Induced Mislocalization of Claudin-1 in Human Keratinocyte-Derived HaCaT Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Aug 8 ;20(16). Epub 2019 Aug 8. PMID: 31398894
Claudin-1 (CLDN1) is expressed in the tight junction (TJ) of the skin granular layer and acts as a physiological barrier for the paracellular transport of ions and nonionic molecules. Ultraviolet (UV) and oxidative stress may disrupt the TJ barrier, but the mechanism of and protective agents against this effect have not been clarified. We found that UVB and hydrogen peroxide (HO) caused the internalization of CLDN1 and increased the paracellular permeability of lucifer yellow, a fluorescent marker, in human keratinocyte-derived HaCaT cells. Therefore, the mechanism of mislocalization of CLDN1 and the protective effect of an ethanol extract of Brazilian green propolis (EBGP) were investigated. The UVB- and HO-induced decreases in CLDN1 localization were rescued by EBGP. HOdecreased the phosphorylation level of CLDN1, which was also rescued by EBGP. Wild-type CLDN1 was distributed in the cytosol after treatment with HO, whereas T191E, its HO-insensitive phosphorylation-mimicking mutant, was localized at the TJ. Both protein kinase C activator and protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor rescued the HO-induced decrease in CLDN1 localization. The tight junctional localization of CLDN1 and paracellular permeability showed a negative correlation. Our results indicate that UVB and HOcould induce the elevation of paracellular permeability mediated by the dephosphorylation and mislocalization of CLDN1 in HaCaT cells, which was rescued by EBGP. EBGP and its components may be useful in preventing the destruction of the TJ barrier through UV and oxidative stress.