Brazilian red propolis: Chemical composition and antibacterial activity determined using bioguided fractionation.
Microbiol Res. 2018 Sep ;214:74-82. Epub 2018 May 4. PMID: 30031483
Luciane Corbellini Rufatto
The indiscriminate use of antibiotics is causing an increase in bacterial resistance, complicating therapeutic planning. In this context, natural products have emerged as major providers of bioactive compounds. This work performs a bioguided study of Brazilian red propolis to identify compounds with antibacterial potential and to evaluate their cytotoxicity against non-tumour cells. Using bioguided fractionation performed with the hydroalcoholic extract of red propolis from Alagoas, it was possible to obtain subfractions with remarkable bacteriostatic activity compared with the precursor fractions. The SC2 subfraction was highlighted and showed the best results with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 56.75, 28.37, 454.00, and 227.00 μg mLagainst Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. However, this study also revealed a cytotoxic effect against the non-tumour Vero cell line. Furthermore, through chemical analyses using high resolution mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, we verified the presence of important marker compounds in the fractions and extracts, including formononetin (m/z 267.0663), biochanin A (m/z 283.0601), and liquiritigenin (m/z 255.0655). The results obtained in this study suggest an important antibacterial potential of red propolis subfractions. In this context, the bioguided fractionation has been a useful process, due to its ability to isolate and concentrate active compounds in a logical and rational way.