Bread wheat gliadin exhibits direct and signficant cytotoxicity. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Bread wheat gliadin cytotoxicity: a new three-dimensional cell model.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2003 ;63(2):135-41. PMID: 12751695
Department of Biology and Genetics, University of Milan, Italy.
BACKGROUND: In an attempt to clarify the role of gliadin toxicity in the pathogenesis of gluten intolerance (celiac disease), previous in vitro studies have been based on two-dimensional human cell cultures. However, the specific morphological and biochemical properties of in vivo tissue are better maintained in three-dimensional cell cultures (multicellular spheroids, MCS). The aim of this study was to develop a three-dimensional in vitro model to investigate the effects of gliadin on epithelial cells and broaden our understanding of the early tissue damage occurring in celiac disease.
METHODS: The three-dimensionally growing Lovo cell line was exposed to increasing concentrations of peptic-tryptic-digested bread wheat gliadin (from 125 to 1000 microg/mL) for 7 days in order to evaluate cell viability (colony-forming assay), and at the standard concentration of 500 microg/mL for 7 days in order to evaluate MCS diameters, volumes and cell morphology using light and electron microscopy.
RESULTS: In comparison with the controls, the cell viability of the gliadin-treated MCS was significantly reduced (20-80%), but there was no difference in size. Various degrees of cell damage (autophagic vacuoles and intra-cytoplasmic lipid-like droplets) were detected by both light and electron microscopy.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study investigating the effects of gliadin on MCS. Lovo MCS seem to be responsive to gliadin exposure, thus confirming previous results obtained using two-dimensional cell cultures. The data suggest that three-dimensional cell cultures may be useful in broadening our understanding of some of the early effects of gliadin peptides on epithelial cells.