andL. Seeds Provide Immunonutritional Agonists to Selectively Polarize Macrophages.
Cells. 2020 03 2 ;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 2. PMID: 32131465
Diet-related immunometabolic-based diseases are associated with chronic inflammation in metabolic tissues, and infiltrated macrophages have been suggested as mediators for tissue- damaging inflammation. Growing evidence implicatesandL. as important contributors to immunonutritional health. However, the functional roles of the immunonutritional protease inhibitors (PPIs) found in these crops on the macrophages' metabolic and phenotypic adaptation remain to be elucidated. The salt soluble fraction of proteins was extracted and analyzed confirming the presence of 11S and 2S albumin. The<30 kDa fraction of the extract from both crops was subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion, where (RP-LC-MS/MS analyses) polypeptides from 2S-type of proteins were found, along with the 2S albumin (13 kDa) forin the bioaccessible fraction (BAF). Using human-like macrophage cells to deepen our understanding of the modulatory effects of this BAF, FACS analyses revealed their potential as TLR4 agonists, favoring increased phenotypic CD68/CD206 ratios. The results of mitochondrial stress tests showed that cells increased oxygen consumption rates and non-mitochondrial respiration, confirming negligible deleterious effects on mitochondrial function. At molecular-level, adaptation responses shed light on changes showing biological correlation with TLR4 signaling. The resulting immunometabolic effects triggered by PPIs can be a part of a tailored nutritional intervention strategy in immunometabolic-based diseases.