GPER/ERK&AKT/NF-κB pathway is involved in cadmium-induced proliferation, invasion and migration of GPER-positive thyroid cancer cells.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017 Feb 15 ;442:68-80. Epub 2016 Dec 9. PMID: 27940299
The higher incidence of thyroid cancer in women during reproductive years compared with men and the increased risk associated with the therapeutic use of estrogen have strongly suggested that estrogen may be involved in the occurrence and development of thyroid cancer. Cadmium (Cd) is a potent metalloestrogen that disrupts the endocrine system by mimicking the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2). In the present study, we demonstrate that similar to E2 and G1, a specific agonist for G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), Cd induces the proliferation, invasion and migration of human WRO and FRO thyroid cancer cells that have endogenous GPER. Moreover, like E2 and G1, Cdleads to a rapid activation of ERK/AKT, and then nuclear translocation of NF-κB, increased expression of cyclin A and D1, and secretion of IL-8, all of which are significantly attenuated by GPER blockage or knock-down in both WRO and FRO cells. Furthermore, the Cd-induced proliferation, invasion and migration are suppressed either by specific inhibitors for GPER, ERK, AKT and NF-κB, or by knock-down of GPER. These results suggest that GPER/ERK&AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway is involved in the Cd-induced proliferation, invasion and migration of GPER-positive thyroid cancer cells.