Comparison of Two Components of Propolis: Caffeic Acid (CA) and Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) Induce Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest of Breast Cancer Cells MDA-MB-231.
Molecules. 2017 Sep 15 ;22(9). Epub 2017 Sep 15. PMID: 28926932
Studies show that caffeic acid (CA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) are compounds with potent chemopreventive effects. Breast cancer is a common form of aggressive cancer among women worldwide. This study shows a comparison of CA and CAPE activity on triple-negative human caucasian breast adenocarcinoma line cells (MDA-MB-231). MDA-MB-231 cells were treated by CA and CAPE with doses of from 10 to 100µM, for periods of 24 h and 48 h. Cytotoxicity MTT tests, apoptosis by Annexin V, and cell cycle with Dead Cell Assays were performed. Cytotoxic activity was greater for CAPE compared to CA (both incubation times, same dosage). ICvalues for CAPE were 27.84µM (24 h) and 15.83 µM (48 h) and for CA>10,000µM (24 h) and>1000µM (48 h). Polyphenols induced apoptosis, while CAPE (dose dependently), induced a higher apoptotic effect. CAPE also induced cell cycle arrest in S phase (time and dose dependently), CA did it only for 50 and 100 µM. A dose dependent decline was seen for the G0/G1 phase (CAPE, 48 h), as well as elimination of phase G2/M by 100 µM of CAPE (only mild effect for CA). Comparing CA and CAPE activity on MDA-MB-231, CAPE clearly showed better activity for the same dosages and experiment times.