Kallikrein expression and cathelicidin processing are independently controlled in keratinocytes by calcium, vitamin D(3), and retinoic acid.
J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Jan 21. Epub 2010 Jan 21. PMID: 20090765
Cathelicidin has dual functions in the skin, acting as an innate antibiotic and as an immunomodulator in diseases such as rosacea and psoriasis. The serine proteases kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and kallikrein 7 (KLK7) control enzymatic processing of cathelicidin precursor in the skin and regulate the eventual function of the final forms of these peptides. We analyzed factors that control expression of KLK5 and KLK7 in normal human epidermal keratinocytes to better understand how these may influence cathelicidin processing and function. Increased extracellular calcium-induced KLK5 and KLK7 mRNA expression and protein release in a time-dependent manner that is similar to induction of differentiation markers such as keratin 10 and involucrin. However, 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D(3), 9-cis retinoic acid (RA), and 13-cis RA also induced the KLKs, but the timing and pattern of KLK induction for each were different and distinct from changes in differentiation markers. Increased protease activity and differential processing of cathelicidin accompanied increased KLK expression. These findings show that the expression and activity of KLK are under fine control and can be distinctly influenced by variables such as differentiation, calcium, vitamin D, and RA. Thus, these variables may further control the functions of antimicrobial peptides in the skin.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 21 January 2010; doi:10.1038/jid.2009.435.