Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) seeds as a novel source of bioactive compounds with promising antimalarial and antischistosomicidal properties.
Food Res Int. 2020 Oct ;136:109334. Epub 2020 May 19. PMID: 32846532
Mariana Araújo Vieira do Carmo
Parasitic diseases have attracted worldwide attention of their consequent impact on mortality and morbidity. Accordingly, several plants have been screened for antiparasitic activity aiming to create new alternatives for treatment. These diseases have been neglected and have not attracted worldwide attention (nowadays), the health concerns are focused in chronic diseases, but it is necessary to focus on parasitic diseases and look for prophylactic alternatives, such as plant extracts. Although camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) seeds are a rich source of antioxidant antimutagenic, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive and neuroprotective compounds, nothing is known about their antiparasitic effects. Thus, in the present study we aimed to evaluate five extracts of camu-camu seeds (100% water, 100% ethyl alcohol, 50% water + 50% ethyl alcohol, 25% water + 75% ethyl alcohol, and 75% water + 25% ethyl alcohol) in relation to their in vitro antimalarial, antischistosomicidal, leishmanicidal and anti-hemolytic effects. The extracts exhibited antischistosomicidal (EDvalues from 418.4 to>1000.0 µg/mL) and antimalarial activities (ICvalues from 24.2 to 240.8 µg/mL) for both W2 and 3D7 strains in all intra-erythrocytic stages. Correlation analysis showed that the toxic effects may mainly be attributed to methylvescalagin (r = -0.548 to -0.951, p < 0.05) and 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (r = -0.612 to -0.917, p < 0.05) contents. Moreover, the anti-hemolytic effect was associated to methylvescalagin (r = -0.597, p < 0.05). No toxic effects were observed for leishmaniasis and IMR90 normal cells. Herein, methylvescalagin was the bioactive compound of greatest interest once it presented simultaneous relation with antiparasitic and anti-hemolytic activities.