Carnosine and Kidney Diseases: What We Currently Know?
Curr Med Chem. 2019 Jul 30. Epub 2019 Jul 30. PMID: 31362685
Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is an endogenously synthesised dipeptide which is present in different human tissues e.g. in the kidney. Carnosine is degraded by enzyme serum carnosinase, encoding by CNDP1 gene. Carnosine is engaged in different metabolic pathways in the kidney. It reduces the level of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines, inhibits advanced glycation end products formation and moreover it decreases the mesangial cell proliferation. Carnosine may also serve as a scavenger of peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals and a natural angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. This review summarizes the results of experimental and human studies concerning the role of carnosine in kidney diseases, particularly in chronic kidney disease, ischemia/reperfusion induced acute renal failure, diabetic nephropathy and also drug-induced nephrotoxicity. The interplay between serum carnosine concentration and serum carnosinase activity and polymorphism in the CNDP1 gene is discussed. Carnosine has renoprotective properties. It has a promising potential for the treatment and prevention of different kidney diseases, particularly chronic kidney disease which is a global public health issue. Further studies of carnosine role in kidney may offer innovative and effective strategies for management of kidney diseases.