Carnosol suppresses interleukin-6 production in mouse lungs injured by ischemia-reperfusion operation and in RAW264.7 macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide.
Biochem Cell Biol. 2018 12 ;96(6):769-776. Epub 2018 Jun 29. PMID: 29958095
Carnosol is a naturally occurring herbal compound, known for its antioxidative properties. We previously found that carnosol protected mouse lungs from ischemia-reperfusion injury in ex vivo cultures. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underpinning carnosol-mediated lung protection, we analyzed modes of interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression, which is associated with lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. Microarray analysis of mouse lungs suggested that IL-6 mRNA levels were elevated in the mouse lungs subjected to clamp-reperfusion, which was associated with elevated levels of other inflammatory modulators, such as activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). Carnosol pretreatment lowered the IL-6 protein levels in mouse lung homogenates prepared after the clamp-reperfusion. On the other hand, the ATF3 gene expression was negatively correlated with that of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. IL-6 mRNA levels and gene promoter activities were suppressed by carnosol in RAW264.7 cells, but rescued by ATF3 knockdown. When RAW264.7 cells were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation, carnosol treatment lowered oxygen consumption after reoxygenation, which was coupled with a correlation with a transient production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and following ATF3 gene expression. These results suggest that carnosol treatment could be a new strategy for protecting lungs from ischemia-reperfusion injury by modulating the ATF3-IL-6 axis.