Celastrol inhibits microglial pyroptosis and attenuates inflammatory reaction in acute spinal cord injury rats.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Jan ;66:215-223. Epub 2018 Nov 22. PMID: 30472522
Pyroptosis pathway is closely related to inflammation. However, Celastrol effect on pyroptosis pathway after spinal cord injury (SCI) are poorly understood. We studied the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of Celastrol on acute spinal cord injury in rats, and its anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/ATP-induced microgliosis. Our results show that Celastrol can improve the recovery of hindlimb motor function after SCI in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, and reduce the cavity area of spinal cord injury along with the neuronal loss. Celastrol simultaneously reduced the activation of microglia (especially M1 microglia) in the spinal cord, inhibited the pyroptosis-related proteins (NLRP3 ASC Caspase-1 GSDMD), reduced the release of TNF-α IL-1β and IL-18 inflammatory factors, and increased the release of IL10 cytokines. In vitro studies showed that Celastrol reduced the toxicity resulting from the administration of LPS with ATP to BV-2 cells, inhibited the pyroptosis-related proteins (NLRP3 Caspase-1 GSDMD), and inhibited the release of corresponding inflammatory factors. Finally, Celastrol can inhibit the expression of NFκB/p-p65 in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that Celastrol can attenuate the inflammatory response of the spinal cord after SCI, which is associated with inhibition of microglial activation and pyroptosis pathway. Further study to explore the use of Celastrol to treat SCI is warranted.