Characterization of the changes in eicosanoid profiles of activated macrophages treated with 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017 Oct 15 ;1065-1066:14-19. Epub 2017 Sep 5. PMID: 28938131
Jae Won Lee
In this study, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to assess the levels of eicosanoids from RAW264.7 macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3). The production of nitric oxide (NO) and the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were increased in inflammatory macrophages treated with LPS. Rg3 treatment, however, decreased the levels of NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 in activated macrophages. Eicosanoids, known as major metabolites correlated with inflammation, have pro- or anti-inflammatory activities. For a detailed characterization of the eicosanoids altered by treatment with LPS and Rg3, the eicosanoids were profiled by multiple reaction monitoring. A total of 69 macrophage eicosanoids were analyzed and the profiling dataset was statistically analyzed. Principal component and hierarchicalcluster analyses differentiated control cells from cells treated with LPS, Rg3, or LPS+Rg3 for 12 or 24h. Furthermore, 18 differentially regulated eicosanoids were found between macrophages treated with LPS for 24h and those treated with LPS+Rg3 for 24h (fold change>2, p value<0.05). These results indicate that Rg3 alters eicosanoid metabolism in activated macrophages treated with LPS. Furthermore, we also identified several eicosanoids correlated with the anti-inflammatory activity of Rg3.