Chemopreventive Effect of the Germinated Oat and its Phenolic-AVA Extract in Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium (AOM/DSS) Model of Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice.
Foods. 2020 Feb 10 ;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 10. PMID: 32050698
The consumption of fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, and whole grains has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) due to the content of natural compounds with antioxidant and anticancer activities. The oat (L.) is a unique source of avenanthramides (AVAs), among other compounds, with chemopreventive effects. In addition, oat germination has shown enhanced nutraceutical and phytochemical properties. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of the sprouted oat (SO) and its phenolic-AVA extract (AVA) in azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced CRC mouse model. Turquesa oat seeds were germinated (five days at 25°C and 60% relative humidity) and, after 16 weeks of administration, animals in the SO- and AVA-treated groups had a significantly lower inflammation grade and tumor (38-50%) and adenocarcinoma (38-63%) incidence compared to those of the AOM+DSS group (80%). Although both treatments normalized colonic GST and NQO1 activities as well as erythrocyte GSH levels, and significantly reduced cecal and colonic β-GA, thus indicating an improvement in the intestinal parameters, the inflammatory states, and the redox states of the animals, SO exerted a superior chemopreventive effect, probably due to the synergistic effects of multiple compounds. Our results indicate that oats retain their biological properties even after the germination process.