Chlorogenic acid attenuates high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic changes in rats.
Nutr Res. 2019 Feb ;62:78-88. Epub 2018 Nov 9. PMID: 30803509
Nikhil S Bhandarkar
Chlorogenic acid as a constituent of coffee is consumed regularly in the human diet. Chlorogenic acid intake has been associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that chlorogenic acid would improve cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic responses in a rat model of metabolic syndrome induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet. Male Wistar rats (8-9 weeks old, 335 ± 2 g, n = 48) were divided into 4 groups and fed with corn starch diet (16 weeks); corn starch diet with chlorogenic acid in food for the last 8 weeks; high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (16 weeks); or high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with chlorogenic acid (~100 mg/kg/d) in food for the last 8 weeks. In high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats, chlorogenic acid reduced energy intake and food efficiency to reduce visceral fat, especially retroperitoneal fat, and abdominal circumference; reversed the elevated systolic blood pressure; and attenuated left ventricular diastolic stiffness with reduced collagen deposition and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the left ventricle. Chlorogenic acid decreased inflammation and fat deposition in the liver along with reduced plasma liver enzyme activities of obese rats but did not change the plasma lipid profile. Chlorogenicacid increased diversity of gut microbiota, which may improve overall metabolism in the body. Thus, chronic dietary chlorogenic acid attenuated diet-induced inflammation as well as cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic changes, suggesting that chlorogenic acid has potential for further clinical evaluation.