Chronic exposure to bisphenol S induces oxidative stress, abnormal anxiety, and fear responses in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Sci Total Environ. 2020 Aug 16 ;750:141633. Epub 2020 Aug 16. PMID: 32882496
Bisphenol S (BPS) is increasingly used in a wide range of industrial and consumer products, resulting in its ubiquitous distribution across the environment, including aquatic ecosystems. Although it is commonly known as a weak/moderate estrogenic compound, there has been a growing acknowledgment of the potential of BPS to cause toxicity by inducing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a major participant in the development of anxiety-like behaviors in humans and animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the impact of BPS on anxiety-like behavior and fear responses in adult zebrafish and also to elucidate the possible linkage between the BPS neurotoxicity and oxidative status of the brain. To this end, adult male and female zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 1, 10, and 30 μg/L of BPS and 1 μg/L of 17-β-estradiol (E2) for 75 days. Following exposure, changes in anxiety and fear-related responses were evaluated by applying a novel tank test and by exposing focal fish to chemical alarm cues. Additionally, we evaluated the expression of multiple antioxidant genesin the zebrafish brain. Our results indicate that BPS, irrespective of exposure concentration, and E2 significantly decreased bottom-dwelling behavior and the latency to enter the upper water column. Furthermore, exposure to the highest concentration of BPS and E2 induced a significant decrease in fear-related responses. The impaired anxiety and reduced fear-related responses were associated with a down-regulation in the transcription of genes involved in enzymatic antioxidant defense. Taken together, our results suggest that chronic exposure to BPS impairs anxiety and fear responses in adultzebrafish, possibly by inducing oxidative stress in the brain.