Changes in Composition and Function of Human Intestinal Microbiota Exposed to Chlorpyrifos in Oil as Assessed by the SHIME(®) Model.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Nov 4 ;13(11). Epub 2016 Nov 4. PMID: 27827942
The presence of pesticide residues in food is a public health problem. Exposure to these substances in daily life could have serious effects on the intestine-the first organ to come into contact with food contaminants. The present study investigated the impact of a low dose (1 mg/day in oil) of the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on the community structure, diversity and metabolic response of the human gut microbiota using the SHIME(®) model (six reactors, representing the different parts of the gastrointestinal tract). The last three reactors (representing the colon) were inoculated with a mixture of feces from human adults. Three time points were studied: immediately before the first dose of CPF, and then after 15 and 30 days of CPF-oil administration. By using conventional bacterial culture and molecular biology methods, we showed that CPF in oil can affect the gut microbiota. It had the greatest effects on counts of culturable bacteria (with an increase in Enterobacteria, Bacteroides spp. and clostridia counts, and adecrease in bifidobacterial counts) and fermentative activity, which were colon-segment-dependent. Our results suggest that: (i) CPF in oil treatment affects the gut microbiota (although there was some discordance between the culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses); (ii) the changes are"SHIME(®)-compartment"specific; and (iii) the changes are associated with minor alterations in the production of short-chain fatty acids and lactate.