Chrysin, abundant in Morinda Citrifolia fruit water-EtOAc extracts, combined with apigenin synergistically induced apoptosis and inhibited migration in human breast and liver cancer cells.
J Agric Food Chem. 2016 May 3. Epub 2016 May 3. PMID: 27137679
The composition of Morinda citrifolia were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and evaluated the anticancer effects of Morinda citrifolia extract in HepG2, Huh7, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Morinda citrifolia fruit extracts were obtained by using five different organic solvents, including hexane (Hex), methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), chloroform (CHCl3), and ethanol (EtOH). The water-ethyl acetate extract from Morinda citrifolia fruits was found to have the highest anticancer activity. HPLC data revealed the predominance of chrysin in Water-EtOAc extracts of Morinda Citrifolia fruit. Furthermore, the combined effects of co-treatment with apigenin and chrysin on liver and breast cancer were investigated. Treatment with apigenin plus chrysin for 72-96 h reduced HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cell viability, and induced apoptosis through downregulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 (Skp2) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) expression. However, the combination treatment for 36 h synergistically decreased MDA-MB-231 cell motility but not cell viability through downregulation of MMP2, MMP9, fibronectin, and snail in MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, chrysin combined with apigenin also suppressed tumor growth in human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells xenograft through downregulation of ki-67 and Skp2 protein. The experimental results showed that chrysin combined with apigenin can reduce HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 proliferation, cell motility and induce apoptosis. It also offers opportunities for exploring new drug targets, and further investigations are underway in this regard.