Cinnamaldehyde enhances apoptotic effect of oxaliplatin and reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemnness in hypoxic colorectal cancer cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2019 Jul 12:111500. Epub 2019 Jul 12. PMID: 31306656
Oxaliplatin has been widely applied in clinical tumor chemotherapy, the treatment failure of which mainly blames on low susceptibility resulted from intrinsic or acquired drug resistance in tumor cells. Microenvironmental hypoxia is one of the important pathological features of solid tumors, which is closely related to the radiochemotherapy tolerance and poor prognosis. Cinnamaldehyde is extracted from Cinnamomum cassia with inhibiting effect against kinds of tumors. In this study, we demonstrated that hypoxia reduced the sensitivity to oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells via inducing EMT and stemness. Nonetheless, cinnamaldehyde increased the curative effect of oxaliplatin by promoting apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, cinnamaldehyde and oxaliplatin synergistically reversed hypoxia-induced EMT and stemness of CRC cells and suppressed hypoxia-activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway synergistically. These consequences uncovered the potential therapeutic value of cinnamaldehyde and provided novel ideas on improving the sensitivity of oxaliplatin in CRC therapy.