Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome: a new protective mechanism of cinnamaldehyde in endotoxin poisoning of mice.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2017 Oct ;39(5):296-304. Epub 2017 Aug 1. PMID: 28762847
CONTEXT: Cinnamaldehyde (CA) has a protective effect in endotoxin poisoning of mice, but there is no direct evidence for the protective effect of CA through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in endotoxin poisoning of mice.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the protective mechanism of CA in endotoxin poisoned mice through NLRP3 inflammasome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of CA in phorbol-12-myristate acetate-differentiated THP-1 cells through the NLRP3 inflammasome. Second, in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin poisoning, CA was administrated for 5 d (once a day) before the 15 mg/kg LPS challenge. Then, the levels of IL-1β in serum were measured, and the effect of CA on the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the expression of cathepsin B and P2X7R proteins in lung were explored.
RESULTS: In vitro, CA decreased the levels of p20, pro-IL-1β and IL-1β in cell culture supernatants, as well as the expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNA in cells. In vivo, CA decreased IL-1β production in serum. Furthermore, CA suppressed LPS-induced NLRP3, p20, Pro-IL-1β, P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) and cathepsin B protein expression in lung, as well as the expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNA.
CONCLUSIONS: CA has a protective effect in the endotoxin poisoned mice through the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, CA suppresses the NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting the expression of cathepsin B and P2X7R protein expression. CA can be considered as a potential therapeutic candidate for diseases involved in endotoxin poisoning such as sepsis.