Citrus-derived DHCP inhibits mitochondrial complex II to enhance TRAIL sensitivity via ROS-induced DR5 upregulation.
J Biol Chem. 2021 Mar 4:100515. Epub 2021 Mar 4. PMID: 33676890
Heat-modified citrus pectin, a water-soluble indigestible polysaccharide fiber derived from citrus fruits and modified by temperature treatment, has been reported to exhibit anticancer effects. However, the bioactive fractions and their mechanisms remain unclear. In this current study, we isolated an active compound, trans-4,5-dihydroxy-2-cyclopentene-l-one (DHCP), from heat-treated citrus pectin, and found that is induces cell death in colon cancer cells via induction of mitochondrial ROS. On the molecular level, DHCP triggers ROS production by inhibiting the activity of succinate ubiquinone reductase (SQR) in mitochondrial complex II. Furthermore, cytotoxicity, apoptotic activity, and activation of caspase cascades were determined in HCT116 and HT-29 cell-based systems, the results indicated that DHCP enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), with DHCP-induced ROS accounting for the synergistic effect between DHCP and TRAIL. Furthermore, the combination of DHCP and TRAIL inhibits the growth of HCT116 and HT-29 xenografts synergistically. ROS significantly increase the expression of TRAIL death receptor 5 (DR5) via the p53 and C/EBP homologous protein pathways. Collectively, our findings indicate that DHCP has a favorable toxicity profile and is a new TRAIL sensitizer that shows promise in the development of pectin-based pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and dietary agents aimed at combating human colon cancer.