Purification and characterization of antithrombotics from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) MErr.&PERRY.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Feb;24(2):181-7. PMID: 11217089
Two antithrombotic polysaccharides with relatively high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) were isolated from the flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) MERR. & PERRY (clove) by anion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction column chromatography and size exclusion chromatography (LMW: EC-2B-IIIa-2, M.W. ca. 34000; HMW: EC-2C-Ia-2, M.W. ca. 103000). The LMW polysaccharide was mainly composed of Rha, Gal, GalA and Ara (molar %: 24.1, 18.9, 18.0 and 17.9, respectively) with 10.8% of sulfate and 18.2% of protein. The HMW fraction consisted of Ara, Gal, Glc and Rha (molar %: 26.0, 23.7, 17.5 and 12.4, respectively) with 15.4% of sulfate and 8.0% of protein. Both polysaccharides had the backbone of type I rhamnogalacturonan and the side chain of arabinan. Also, most of the sulfates were attached at the position 6 of 3-linked galactosyl residues. Compared to the antithrombotic activity of the HMW fraction (plasma clotting time of 145 s in APTT assay), the LMW fraction displayed a slightly low activity (90 s). However, animal studies indicated that crude LMW polysaccharide did not show acute toxicity, while the acute LD50 of the HMW fraction was approximately 2-fold lower than that of heparin.