Protection against arsenic-induced hematological and hepatic anomalies by supplementation of vitamin C and vitamin E in adult male rats.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2016 Nov 1 ;27(6):643-652. PMID: 27464034
BACKGROUND: Chronic arsenic exposure via contaminated drinking water is a global environmental health problem associated with hematological, hepatic and many serious systemic disorders. This study on adult male rats evaluated the protective effects of vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) against arsenic-mediated hematological and hepatic toxicities.
METHODS: Arsenic was administered orally as arsenic trioxide (3 mg/kg body weight/day), as a single dose for 30 consecutive days or along with VC/ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg body weight/day dissolved in water) and VE/α-tocopherol (400 mg/kg body weight/day dissolved in olive oil) as supplements. Multiple hematological and hepatic parameters were assessed.
RESULTS: Arsenic exposure caused significant reduction of erythrocyte counts (p<0.05), leukocyte counts (p<0.01) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels (p<0.01). Arsenic exposure also led to marked echinocytic transformation of erythrocytes resulting in increased morphological index (p<0.001). Altered serum oxidative balance was observed with a higher oxidative stress index (p<0.001). The results also showed a significant increase of serum cholesterol (p<0.05), low-density lipoprotein (p<0.001) and triglycerides (p<0.01), and decreased high-density lipoprotein (p<0.01) along with total protein (p<0.01). A marked elevation of hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (p<0.05) along with decreased reduced glutathione (p<0.001) levels were also observed. Interestingly, co-administration of VC and VE significantly prevented all the arsenic-induced alterations (p<0.05) except Hb content and serum protein.
CONCLUSIONS: The present investigation offers strong evidence regarding the protective efficacy of co-administration of VC and VE against hematotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in adult male rats caused by chronic arsenic exposure.