Coix Seed Extract Enhances the Anti-Pancreatic Cancer Efficacy of Gemcitabine through Regulating ABCB1- and ABCG2-Mediated Drug Efflux: A Bioluminescent Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Oct 23 ;20(21). Epub 2019 Oct 23. PMID: 31652737
A deep insight into the function and kinetics of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters may aid in the development of pharmaceutics that can minimize the particular facet of chemo-resistance. We utilized bioluminescence imaging to monitor the ABC transporter mediated intracellular drug efflux function. We also investigated the potential association between the intracellular bioluminescent pharmacokinetic profiles and the anti-tumor efficacy of the coix seed extract and gemcitabine against pancreatic cancer cellsand. The bioluminescent pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic index (ICand TGI) were determined. The expression levels ABCB1 and ABCG2 were assessed. Results showed that coix seed extract could synergistically enhance the anti-cancer efficacy of gemcitabine (<0.05). Meanwhile coix seed extract alone or in combination with gemcitabine could significantly increase the AUCwhile decreasing the K(<0.01). Western blot and immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated that coix seed extract could significantly mitigate gemcitabine-induced upregulation of ABCB1 and ABCG2 protein. The Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated that the bioluminescent pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic index have strong associationand. In conclusion coix seed extract could augment the efficacy of gemcitabine therapy in pancreatic cancer cells may at least partly due to the alteration of ABC transporter-mediated drug efflux function.