Collard greens are a rich and bioavailable source of vitamin K. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Plasma transport of vitamin K in men using deuterium-labeled collard greens.
World J Gastroenterol. 2010 Apr 7;16(13):1622-30. PMID: 14767874
Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.
The plasma transport of stable isotope-labeled phylloquinone at physiologic doses from food was studied. A single bolus of 100 g (396 +/- 28 microg phylloquinone) deuterium-labeled collard greens was fed with a breakfast containing 24 g fat to 5 men (26 to 71 years). Eleven blood samples were obtained over 216 hours. Phylloquinone concentrations in plasma and lipoprotein subfractions were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the ion abundances of deuterated and endogenous phylloquinone were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Plasma total phylloquinone concentrations peaked at 6 to 9 hours (10.51 +/- 4.38 to 8.30 +/- 4.64 nmol/L) and returned to baseline by 24 hours (1.26 +/- 0.38 nmol/L). The triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction was the major carrier of phylloquinone; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fractions contained smaller amounts. Maximum enrichment of plasma and TRL phylloquinone with deuterium (88% and 89%, respectively) was reached at 6 hours, respectively; t(1/2) was 22.8 hours (n = 3). Deuterated-phylloquinone was not detectable in plasma or TRL fraction at 72 hours. These results suggest rapid uptake and transport of physiologic doses of phylloquinone.