Phloretin increases the anti-tumor efficacy of intratumorally delivered heat-shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70) in a murine model of melanoma.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2016 Jan ;65(1):83-92. Epub 2015 Dec 8. PMID: 26646850
Sergey V Abkin
Recombinant HSP70 chaperone exerts a profound anticancer effect when administered intratumorally. This action is based on the ability of HSP70 to penetrate tumor cells and extract its endogenous homolog. To enhance the efficacy of HSP70 cycling, we employed phloretin, a flavonoid that enhances the pore-forming activity of the chaperone on artificial membranes. Phloretin increased the efficacy of HSP70 penetration in B16 mouse melanoma cells and K-562 human erythroblasts; this was accompanied with increased transport of the endogenous HSP70 to the plasma membrane. Importantly, treatment with HSP70 combined with phloretin led to the elevation of cell sensitivity to cytotoxic lymphocytes by 16-18 % compared to treatment with the chaperone alone. The incubation of K-562 cells with biotinylated HSP70 and phloretin increased the amount of the chaperone released from cells, suggesting that chaperone cycling could trigger a specific anti-tumor response. We studied the effect of the combinationof HSP70 and phloretin using B16 melanoma and a novel method of HSP70-gel application. We found that the addition of phloretin to the gel reduced tumor weight almost fivefold compared with untreated mice, while the life span of the animals extended from 25 to 39 days. The increased survival was corroborated by the activation of innate and adaptive immunity; interestingly, HSP70 was more active in induction of CD8+ cell-mediated toxicity and γIFN production while phloretin contributed largely to the CD56+ cell response. In conclusion, the combination of HSP70 with phloretin could be a noveltreatment for efficient immunotherapy of intractable cancers such as skin melanoma.