Combined effects of metformin and photobiomodulation improve the proliferation phase of wound healing in type 2 diabetic rats.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2020 Mar ;123:109776. Epub 2020 Jan 3. PMID: 31911295
We determined the impact of Photobiomodulation (PBM) and metformin administration alone and combined on the inflammation and proliferation steps of wound healing of incisions in type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. 40 rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 each group). A non-genetic model of T2DM was induced in all rats, and an incision was made on each rat. There were 4 groups as follows: Group 1 was control group. Group 2 received PBM alone (890 nm, 80 Hz, 0.324 J/cm, daily). Group 3 received metformin alone (50 mg/kg, i.p., daily) and the fourth group received combination of PBM + metformin. At inflammation (day 4) and proliferation (day 7) steps, tensiometerical, stereological, and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. PBM and PBM + metformin treatments significantly increased woundstrength at inflammation and proliferation steps of wound healing respectively. PBM, metformin, and PBM + metformin groups significantly decreased inflammatory cells at inflammation and proliferation steps of wound healing. PBM, metformin, and PBM + metformin groups significantly improved granulation tissue formation by increasing fibroblasts, and new blood vessel formation at inflammation and proliferation steps of wound healing. Metformin significantly increased M2 macrophages than other treatment groups at inflammation and proliferation steps of wound healing. Simultaneously, PBM significantly decreased M2 macrophages than control group. We concluded PBM and PBM + metformin treatments significantly hastened repair at the inflammation and proliferation steps of repairing skin injury in a non-genetic model of T2 DM. PBM + metformin showed a synergistic impact. There werenot a positive relation between M2 macrophage number and wound strength in the studied groups. The details of the molecular mechanisms of PBM, and PBM + metformin treatments of repairing wounds in animals, and treatment of DFUs of patients with T2 DM should be elucidated by further research.