Ginger extract adjuvant to doxorubicin in mammary carcinoma: study of some molecular mechanisms.
Eur J Nutr. 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22. PMID: 28229277
Nahla E El-Ashmawy
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer properties of ginger extract (GE) in mice bearing solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) and to evaluate the use of GE in combination with doxorubicin (DOX) as a complementary therapy against SEC.
METHODS: SEC was induced in 60 female mice. Mice were divided into four equal groups: SEC, GE, DOX and GE + DOX. GE (100 mg/kg orally day after day) and DOX (4 mg/kg i.p. for 4 cycles every 5 days) were given to mice starting on day 12 of inoculation. On the 28th day, blood samples were collected, mice were scarified, tumor volume was measured, and tumor tissues were excised.
RESULTS: The anti-cancer effect of GE was mediated by activation of adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK) and down-regulation of cyclin D1 gene expression. GE also showed pro-apoptotic properties as evidenced by elevation of the P53 and suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) content in tumor tissue. Co-administration of GE alongside DOX markedly increased survival rate, decreased tumor volume, and increased the level of phosphorylated AMPK (PAMPK) and improved related pathways compared to DOX group. In addition, the histopathological results demonstrated enhanced apoptosis and absence of multinucleated cells in tumor tissue of GE + DOX group.
CONCLUSION: AMPK pathway and cyclin D1 gene expression could be a molecular therapeutic target for the anticancer effect of GE in mice bearing SEC. Combining GE and DOX revealed a greater efficacy as anticancer therapeutic regimen.