Combining Thermotherapy with Cryotherapy for Efficient Eradication of Apple stem grooving virus from Infected In-vitro-cultured Apple Shoots.
Plant Dis. 2018 Aug ;102(8):1574-1580. Epub 2018 Jun 11. PMID: 30673422
Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), a difficult-to-eradicate virus from apple propagative materials, causes serious damage to apple production. The use of virus-free plants has been and is an effective strategy for control of plant viral diseases. This study aimed to eradicate ASGV from virus-infected in-vitro-cultured shoots of four apple cultivars and one rootstock by combining thermotherapy with cryotherapy. In vitro stock shoots infected with ASGV were thermo-treated using an alternating temperature of 36°C (day) and 32°C (night). Shoot tips were excised from the treated stock shoots and subjected to cryotherapy. Results showed that, although thermotherapy did not influence shoot survival rates, it reduced shoot growth and proliferation of in vitro shoots. Shoot regrowth rates decreased while virus eradication frequencies increased in cryo-treated shoot tips as time durations of thermotherapy increased from 0 to 6 weeks. Shoot regrowth and frequency of virus eradication were positively and negatively correlated, respectively, with the size of shoot tips. The protocol established here yieldedshoot regrowth rates and virus eradication frequencies of 33 to 76% and 30 to 100%, respectively, in the four apple cultivars and one rootstock. Thermotherapy altered virus distribution patterns, subsequently resulting in production of a larger virus-free area in the thermo-treated shoot tips. Manycells in the top layers of apical dome and some cells in the youngest leaf primordia survived in cryo-treated shoot tips; these cells were most likely free of virus infection. Thus, plants regenerated from the procedure of combining thermotherapy with cryotherapy were free of ASGV, as judged by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the widest-spectrum technique reported thus far for the production of ASGV-free plants and provides a novel biotechnology for the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp.