A Comparative Review of Established Diets for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Newer Dietary Strategies.
Curr Probl Cardiol. 2020 Mar 19:100582. Epub 2020 Mar 19. PMID: 32389436
As part of a population-based approach to combating obesity, the American Heart Association has published specific dietary guidelines for the management of obesity and cardiovascular disease prevention. These guidelines give a primary view of healthy dietary changes and goals which may reduce cardiovascular risk. The American Heart Association guideline on Cardiovascular Prevention focuses on the benefits of a Plant-Based Diet and the Mediterranean diet. In addition to these recommendations, several other diets exist with variable long-term cardiovascular outcomes. In recent years, the ketogenic and intermittent fasting diets have been emerging and have garnered their own respective followings as weight loss strategies, and we will include them in our discussion of the potential long-term benefits related to cardiovascular risks. As the guidelines emphasize, all of the diets we will cover throughout this review must be discussed at the level of the individual patient with their primary care provider, and cannot be exercised without informed consent regarding the potential outcomes. Further research is required, and caution is advised before prescribing any of these diets to patients in the long-term, due to the potential to exacerbate cardiovascular risk factors.