A comparative study on immune-stimulatory and antioxidant activities of various types of ginseng extracts in murine and rodent models.
J Ginseng Res. 2018 Oct ;42(4):577-584. Epub 2018 Jul 17. PMID: 30344431
Background: Ginseng () is a widely used traditional herbal supplement that possesses various health-enhancing efficacies. Various ginseng products are available in market, especially in the Korean peninsula, in the form of drinks, tablets, and capsules. The different ginseng types include the traditional red ginseng extract (RGE), white ginseng, and black red ginseng extract (BRGE). Their fermented and enzyme-treated products are also available. Different treatment regimens alter the bioavailability of certain compounds present in the respective ginseng extracts. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to compare the antioxidant and immune-stimulating activities ofRGE, BRGE, and fermented red ginseng extract (FRGE).
Methods: We used an acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress model for investigating the reduction of oxidative stress by RGE, BRGE, and FRGE in Sprague Dawley rats. A cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression model was used to evaluate the immune-stimulating activities of these ginseng extracts in BALB/c mice.
Results: Our results showed that most prominently, RGE (in almost all experiments) exhibited excellent antioxidant effects via increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in the liver and decreasing serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels compared with the groups treated with FRGE and BRGE. Moreover, RGE significantly increased the number of white blood cells, especially T and B lymphocytes, and antibody-forming cells in the spleen and thymus, and it also activated a number of immune cell subtypes.
Conclusion: Taken together, these results indicate that RGE is the best supplement for consumption in everyday life for overall health-enhancing properties.