Comparative study of royal jelly, propolis, and photobiomodulation therapies in 5-fluorouracil-related oral mucositis in rats.
Support Care Cancer. 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25. PMID: 34822003
Mara Luana Batista Severo
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of action of royal jelly (RJ) and propolis compared to photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in an animal model of 5-fluorouracil-related oral mucositis (OM).
METHODS: Seventy-two male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups (n = 18 each): control (no treatment), PBMT (intraoral laser, 6 J/cm), RJ, and propolis. On days 0 and 2, the animals received an injection of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The buccal mucosa was scratched (days 3 and 4) and the treatments were initiated on day 5. Six animals of each group were euthanized on days 8, 10, and 14. Phytochemical analysis (thin-layer chromatography, TLC) and clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analysis of pS6, pAKT, and NF-κB were performed, and oxidative stress markers were also investigated.
RESULTS: TLC revealed the presence of large amounts of sucrose (Rf 0.34) in RJ and of flavonoids in propolis. Lower clinical OM scores were observed on day 8, and improved morphological data were observed on day 10 in the PBMT, RJ, and propolis groups (p < 0.05). On day 8, immunoexpression of pS6, pAKT, and NF-κB was increased compared to control. On day 14, reduced glutathione (GSH) antioxidant levels were increased in the propolis group compared to control (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that RJ and propolis, as well as PBMT, are effective in the treatment of OM. Considering that some patients who develop OM do not have access to PBMT, the present study demonstrated that topical application of RJ and propolis may be an important alternative for the treatment of OM.