Comparison of acute and chronic effects of Bacopa monnieri, Ginkgo biloba, and Lavandula angustifolia and their mixture on learning and memory in mice.
Phytother Res. 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11. PMID: 33429454
Mujeeb Ur Rehman
Forty-seven million people are living with memory-related disorders worldwide. Phytomedicines are gaining extensive interest in the treatment of these ailments. Memory-enhancing (acute and chronic) potentials of commercial grade extracts of Bacopa monnieri (200 mg/kg, po), Ginkgo biloba (150 mg/kg, po), and Lavandula angustifolia (200 mg/kg, po) and their mixture (B. monnieri 100 mg/kg, G. biloba 75 mg/kg, and L. angustifolia 100 mg/kg, po) were compared for their synergistic/additive effects on the Morris water maze (MWM) test and elevated plus maze (EPM) test in scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. Escape latency and accumulative path length were significantly reduced both in acute (up to day 6) and chronic trials (days 8-14) in B. monnieri-, G. biloba-, and L. angustifolia-treated animals and their mixtures (n = 8, p < .05) in MWM. Furthermore, in probe trials (acute on day 7 and chronic on day 15), the number of crossing-overs at platform position and time spent in platform quadrant were significantly increased, while transfer latency in EPM was decreased in treated animals as compared to the saline group (n =8, p < .05). The mixture showed synergistic effects on memory enhancement as compared to each extract individually in mice. Further studies may be carried out on the active compounds of B. monnieri at the cellular and molecular levels.