Comparison of hospitalization and mortality associated with short-term exposure to ambient ozone and PMin Canada.
Chemosphere. 2020 Oct 29:128683. Epub 2020 Oct 29. PMID: 33158503
Hwashin Hyun Shin
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization and mortality (H-M) have been linked to air pollution separately. However, previous studies have not adequately compared whether air pollution is a stronger risk factor for hospitalization or mortality. This study aimed to investigate differences in H-M risk from short-term ozone and PMexposures, and determine whether differences are modified by season, age, and sex.
METHODS: Daily ozone, PM, temperature, and all-cause H-M counts (ICD-10, A00-R99) were collected for 22-24 Canadian cities for up to 29 years. Generalized additive Poisson models were employed to estimate associations between each pollutant and health outcome, which were compared across season (warm, cold, or year-round), age (all ages or seniors > 65), and sex.
RESULTS: Overall, ozone and PMshowed higher season-specific risk of mortality than hospitalization: warm-season ozone: 0.54% (95% credible interval, 0.20, 0.85) vs. 0.14% (0.02, 0.27) per 10 ppb; and year-round PM: 0.90% (0.33, 1.41) vs. 0.29% (0.03, 0.56) per 10 μg/m. While age showed little H-M difference, sex appeared to be a modifier of H-M risk. While females had higher mortality risk, males had higher hospitalization risk: for females, ozone 0.87% (0.36, 1.35) vs. -0.03% (-0.18, 0.11) and PM1.19% (0.40, 1.90) vs. 0.19% (-0.10, 0.47); and for males ozone 0.20% (-0.28, 0.65) vs. 0.35% (0.18, 0.51).
CONCLUSION: This study found H-M differences attributable to ozone and PM, suggesting that both are stronger risk factors for mortality than hospitalization. In addition, there were clear H-M differences by sex: specifically, females showed higher mortality risk and males showed higher hospitalization risk.