Mulberry leaf active components alleviate type 2 diabetes and its liver and kidney injury in db/db mice through insulin receptor and TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Apr ;112:108675. Epub 2019 Feb 16. PMID: 30780108
Mulberry leaf is one of the commonly used traditional Chinese medicines, has been shown to exert hypoglycemic effects against diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects and mechanism of mulberry leaf flavonoids (MF), polysaccharides (MP) and alkaloids (MA) on diabetic and its liver and kidney injury. The db/db mice was adopted and the results showed that the FBG (fasting blood glucose) of model group continued to increase and associated liver and kidney injury. After the intervention of MP and MA, the value of FBG exhibited the most obvious hypoglycemic effect. MF and MP have obvious improved effect on kidney injury, which reduced the content of mALB/Cre (microalbumin/creatinine) in urine and improved the tubular epithelial cells edematous and renal cystic epithelial thickening. While the MF and MA possessed a significant effect on liver damage, manifested in reducing the levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and pathological changes of liver on db/db mice. Through metabolomics analysis, 13 endogenous potential biomarkers were identified in serum. The three effective components of mulberry can regulate the 13 potential biomarkers and the corresponding metabolic pathway. Collectively, the components of mulberry leaf have clear hypoglycemic effect and protective effect on liver and kidney injury and the effects are related to insulin receptor and TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway.