Comparison of the Effects of Nonfermented and Fermented Panax ginseng Root Against Hypertriglycemia in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.
J Med Food. 2018 Apr ;21(4):317-321. Epub 2018 Mar 20. PMID: 29630450
Chan Hum Park
Panax ginseng (P. ginseng C.A. Meyer, Araliaceae) is used as a therapeutic agent for various diseases. P. ginseng saponins, known as ginsenosides, are the main bioactive compounds responsible for its pharmacological activities. In this work, we have developed a new method of P. ginseng root processing termed solid-state fermentation and examined its effects compared with nonfermented P. ginseng. Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce hyperlipidemia and then received 100 mg·kg bw·dayof fermented or nonfermented P. ginseng orally for 3 weeks. We assessed the activities of lipogenic pathways and lipid levels in the liver and plasma. The administration of either nonfermented or fermented P. ginseng improved hepatic lipid transfer protein profiles. Nonfermented P. ginseng exhibited significant effects on the regulation of lipid synthesis and oxidation. However, apolipoprotein A4 (apoA4) expression was increased by the administration of fermented P. ginseng. When ginsenosides were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the amounts of the ginsenosides, Rg, Rc, Rh(S), Rh(R), and Rd, were increased by fermentation, with Rd becoming a major constituent of fermented P. ginseng. These findings imply that nonfermented P. ginseng improves hypertriglycemia in HFD-fed mice through regulation of the hepatic lipogenic pathway. In contrast, the effects of fermented P. ginseng were mediated through increased apoA4, leading to decreased triglycerides. The HPLC profiles of ginsenosides suggest that the compositional changes in P. ginseng caused by fermentation processing could be useful in the development of novel triglyceride-lowering therapies.