2-Methylpyridine-1-ium-1-sulfonate from Allium hirtifolium: An anti-angiogenic compound which inhibits growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Sep ;93:117-129. Epub 2017 Jun 16. PMID: 28624423
Natural products have well been recognized as sources of drugs in cancer treatment. Some medicinal plants contain the constituents with potent anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer effects, which have offered great hopes of being used as drugs for treating various cancers. The present study aims at identifying the anti-angiogenic effects of 2-Methylpyridine-1-ium-1-sulfonate (MPS) isolated from the ethyl acetate extract (EA) of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium). In a concentration-dependent manner, the MPS was able to inhibit endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis in both in vivo and in vitro assays, and also significantly suppressed proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Additionally, treatment with MPS showed a significant reduction in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion level and production/activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in the studied cells. The flow cytometry analysis indicated that MPS suppressed growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells at G0/G1 and S phases, respectively. Our results indicated that the induction of cell cycle arrest was correlated with the obvious changes in expression of p21, p27 and p53. According to the DNA fragmentation assay, MPS caused apoptosis in both cell lines, which confirms the results obtained with the growth assay. Moreover, the compound-mediated apoptosis accompanied with the increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 and -9 activities. Molecular docking results indicated that the MPS compound can surprisingly bind to VEGF and VEGF receptors and interacts with their critical amino acids. Finally, compounds with anticancer inhibitory activity (e.g. MPS) are abundant in nature and can be obtained from several sources. So, our data can be clinically developed for treating angiogenesis and cancer significantly.