A Comprehensive Assessment of Apigenin as an Antiproliferative, Proapoptotic, Antiangiogenic and Immunomodulatory Phytocompound.
Nutrients. 2019 Apr 16 ;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 16. PMID: 30995771
Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) (Api) is an important component of the human diet, being distributed in a wide number of fruits, vegetables and herbs with the most important sources being represented by chamomile, celery, celeriac and parsley. This study was designed for a comprehensive evaluation of Api as an antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory phytocompound. In the set experimental conditions, Api presents antiproliferative activity against the A375 human melanoma cell line, a G2/M arrest of the cell cycle and cytotoxic events as revealed by the lactate dehydrogenase release. Caspase 3 activity was inversely proportional to the Api tested doses, namely 30μM and 60 μM. Phenomena of early apoptosis, late apoptosis and necrosis following incubation with Api were detected by Annexin V-PI double staining. The flavone interfered with the mitochondrial respiration by modulating both glycolytic and mitochondrial pathways for ATP production. The metabolicactivity of human dendritic cells (DCs) under LPS-activation was clearly attenuated by stimulation with high concentrations of Api. Il-6 and IL-10 secretion was almost completely blocked while TNF alpha secretion was reduced by about 60%. Api elicited antiangiogenic properties in a dose-dependent manner. Both concentrations of Api influenced tumour cell growth and migration, inducing a limited tumour area inside the application ring, associated with a low number of capillaries.