The consequences of altered microbiota in immune-related chronic kidney disease. - GreenMedInfo Summary
The consequences of altered microbiota in immune-related chronic kidney disease.
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21. PMID: 32437554
Wei Ling Lau
The normal gut microbiome modulates host enterocyte metabolism and shapes local and systemic immunity. Accumulation of urea and other waste products in chronic kidney disease induces gut dysbiosis and intestinal wall inflammation (leaky gut). There are decreased numbers of bacteria that generate short-chain fatty acids, which are an important nutrient source for host enterocytes and also contribute to regulation of the host immune system. Anaerobic proteolytic bacteria that express urease, uricase and indole and p-cresol enzymes, such as Enterobacteria and Enterococci, are increased. Microbial-derived uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and trimethylamine N-oxide contribute to the pathophysiology of immune-related kidney diseases such as diabetic nephropathy, lupus nephritis and immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. Animal and clinical studies suggest potential benefits of dietary and probiotic interventions in slowing the progression of immune-related kidney diseases.