The Endotoxemia Marker Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein is Reduced in Overweight-Obese Subjects Consuming Pomegranate Extract by Modulating the Gut Microbiota: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018 Jun ;62(11):e1800160. Epub 2018 May 17. PMID: 29665619
SCOPE: Gut microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal barrier failure, obesity, metabolic endotoxemia, and pro-inflammatory status promote cardiovascular risk. However, the modulation of the gut microbiome to prevent endotoxemia in obesity has been scarcely studied. We investigated the association between gut microbiota modulation and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a surrogate marker of endotoxemia, in overweight-obese individuals.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In a randomized trial, 49 overweight-obese subjects (body mass index>27 kg m) with mild hypelipidemia daily consumed, in a cross-over fashion, two doses (D1 and D2, lasting 3 weeks each) of pomegranate extract (PE) or placebo alternating with 3 weeks of wash-out periods. A significant decrease (p<0.05) of plasma LBP and a marginal decrease (p = 0.054) of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were observed, but only after PE-D2 administration (656 mg phenolics). 16S rDNA sequencing analyses revealed the increase of microorganisms important for maintaining normal balance of gut microbiota and gut barrier function, particularly Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Butyricicoccus, Odoribacter, and Butyricimonas. PE-D2 also decreased pro-inflammatory microorganisms including Parvimonas, Methanobrevibacter, and Methanosphaera. Remarkably, plasma LBP reduction was significantly associated (p<0.05) with both Faecalibacterium and Odoribacter increase and Parvimonas decrease.
CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of PE decreased endotoxemia in overweight-obese individuals by reshaping the gut microbiota, mainly through the modulation of Faecalibacterium, Odoribacter, and Parvimonas.