Too late to vaccinate? The incremental benefits and cost-effectiveness of a delayed catch-up program using the 4-valent human papillomavirus vaccine in Norway.
J Infect Dis. 2015 Jan 15 ;211(2):206-15. Epub 2014 Jul 23. PMID: 25057044
Emily A Burger
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are ideally administered before HPV exposure; therefore, catch-up programs for girls past adolescence have not been readily funded. We evaluated the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a delayed, 1-year female catch-up vaccination program in Norway.
METHODS: We calibrated a dynamic HPV transmission model to Norwegian data and projected the costs and benefits associated with 8 HPV-related conditions while varying the upper vaccination age limit to 20, 22, 24, or 26 years. We explored the impact of vaccine protection in women with prior vaccine-targeted HPV infections, vaccine cost, coverage, and natural- and vaccine-induced immunity.
RESULTS: The incremental benefits and cost-effectiveness decreased as the upper age limit for catch-up increased. Assuming a vaccine cost of $150/dose, vaccination up to age 20 years remained below Norway's willingness-to-pay threshold (approximately $83 000/quality-adjusted life year gained); extension to age 22 years was cost-effective at a lower cost per dose ($50-$75). At high levels of vaccine protection in women with prior HPV exposure, vaccinating up to age 26 years was cost-effective. Results were stable with lower coverage.
CONCLUSIONS: HPV vaccination catch-up programs, 5 years after routine implementation, may be warranted; however, even at low vaccine cost per dose, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating beyond age 22 years remains uncertain.