Comparative Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Anti-Alzheimer's Disease Potential of Coumestrol and Puerarol Isolated from Pueraria lobata Using Molecular Modeling Studies.
Molecules. 2018 Mar 28 ;23(4). Epub 2018 Mar 28. PMID: 29597336
The current study assesses the antioxidant effects of two similar isoflavonoids isolated from, coumestrol and puerarol, along with the cholinergic and amyloid-cascade pathways to mitigate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Antioxidant activity was evaluated via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO) scavenging ability further screened via ONOO-mediated nitrotyrosine. Similarly, acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase (AChE/BChE) andβ-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitory activities were assessed together with docking and kinetic studies. Considering DPPH and ONOOscavenging activity, coumestrol (ECvalues of 53.98 and 1.17µM) was found to be more potent than puerarol (ECvalues of 82.55 and 6.99µM) followed by dose dependent inhibition of ONOO-mediated nitrotyrosine. Coumestrol showed pronounced AChE and BChE activity with ICvalues of 42.33 and 24.64µM, respectively, acting as a dual cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor. Despite having weak ChE inhibitory activity, puerarol showed potent BACE1 inhibition (28.17 µM). Kinetic studies of coumestrol showed AChE and BChE inhibition in a competitive and mixed fashion, whereas puerarol showed mixed inhibition for BACE1. In addition, docking simulations demonstrated high affinity and tight binding capacity towards the active site of the enzymes. In summary, we undertook a comparative study of two similar isoflavonoids differing only by a single aliphatic side chain and demonstrated that antioxidant agents coumestrol and puerarol are promising, potentially complementary therapeutics for AD.