Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar 16. Epub 2011 Mar 16. PMID: 21411615
Evans Department of Medicine and the Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, and the Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA.
BACKGROUND: Cranberry juice contains polyphenolic compounds that could improve endothelial function and reduce cardiovascular disease risk. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease. DESIGN: We completed an acute pilot study with no placebo (n = 15) and a chronic placebo-controlled crossover study (n = 44) that examined the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease. RESULTS: In the chronic crossover study, subjects with coronary heart disease consumed a research preparation of double-strength cranberry juice (54% juice, 835 mg total polyphenols, and 94 mg anthocyanins) or a matched placebo beverage (480 mL/d) for 4 wk each with a 2-wk rest period between beverages. Beverage order was randomized, and participants refrained from consuming other flavonoid-containing beverages during the study. Vascular function was measured before and after each beverage, with the follow-up testing≥12 h after consumption of the last beverage. Mean (±SD) carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, a measure of central aortic stiffness, decreased after cranberry juice (8.3 ± 2.3 to 7.8 ± 2.2 m/s) in contrast with an increase (8.0 ± 2.0 to 8.4 ± 2.8 m/s) after placebo (P = 0.003). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, digital pulse amplitude tonometry, blood pressure, and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity did not change. In the uncontrolled pilot study, we observed improved brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (7.7 ± 2.9% to 8.7 ± 3.1%, P = 0.01) and digital pulse amplitude tonometry ratio (0.10 ± 0.12 to 0.23 ± 0.16, P = 0.001) 4 h after consumption of a single 480-mL portion of cranberry juice. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic cranberry juice consumption reduced carotid femoral pulse wave velocity-a clinically relevant measure of arterial stiffness. The uncontrolled pilot study suggested an acute benefit; however, no chronic effect on measures of endothelial vasodilator function was found. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00553904.