A comparative study of the role of crocin and sitagliptin in attenuation of STZ-induced diabetes mellitus and the associated inflammatory and apoptotic changes in pancreaticβ-islets.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2019 Jul 31 ;72:103238. Epub 2019 Jul 31. PMID: 31394428
Mahmoud M Samaha
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) describes a complex group of metabolic disorders associated with elevated blood glucose levels and increased risks of complications development. Exploring new drug therapies would reduce the increased diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality and will reduce the excessive health care costs. Crocin is the major active ingredient of saffron. In the current study, DM was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (50 mg/kg).DM progression was associated with a significant increase in blood glucose level with reduced insulin and increased glucagon secretion. Pancreatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content significantly escalated, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, catalase activity, thioredoxin level and serum total antioxidant capacity significantly declined. This was associated with a significant increase in pancreatic caspase-3 contents and pancreatic infiltration with inflammatory cells in β-islets. Both sitagliptin and crocin significantly reduced blood glucose levels, enhanced pancreatic insulin expression and secretion and suppressed glucagon secretion with enhancement of anti-oxidant defenses and reduction of oxidative burden, with evident anti-inflammatory impacts. Interestingly, the effect of crocin on DM indices, inflammatory and apoptotic changes was comparable to that of sitagliptin; the standard oral hypoglycemic agent. Nevertheless, crocin had a superior effect compared to sitagliptin on blood sugar level, β-islets diameter and insulin immune-reactivity. In conclusion, crocin reduced blood glucose level mainly via reduction of oxidative burden, modulation of apoptotic pathway and attenuation of pancreatic inflammation.