Anthocyanin composition and antioxidant activity of the Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) and other berries.
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jun 25 ;56(12):4457-62. Epub 2008 Jun 4. PMID: 18522397
The anthocyanin composition and antioxidant activity of the crowberry ( Empetrum nigrum) were studied. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with a diode array detector and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were used for identification and quantification of individual anthocyanins. Freeze-dried crowberry powder was extracted with 80% methanol containing 0.5% acetic acid and subjected to HPLC. Thirteen kinds of anthocyanins were identified. The major anthocyanins were cyanidin-3-galactoside and delphinidin-3-galactoside, at 8.04 and 8.62 mg/g extract, respectively. The HPLC profile of crowberry extract was similar to bilberry and blueberry. The total content of anthocyanins in crowberry was 41.8 mg/g extract, higher than the other nine major berry species (2.5-38.8 mg/g extract). The antioxidant activity was also evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethybenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical quenching assays and the ferric reducing activity power assy. Crowberry extract exerted the strongest antioxidant activity. In conclusion, individual anthocyanins in crowberry were identified and then quantified in this study. Additionally, crowberry is suggested to be associated with a reduction in the risk of developing chronic diseases because of its strong antioxidant activity.