Cruciferous Vegetables as Antioxidative, Chemopreventive and Antineoplasic Functional Foods: Preclinical and Clinical evidences of Sulforaphane Against Prostate Cancers.
Curr Pharm Des. 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16. PMID: 30652644
Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Sulforaphane (SF, 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methyl-sulfinyl)-butane) is found in broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower.
METHODS: we performed a critical review about the antioxidative, chemopreventive and antitumor effects of SF from cruciferous vegetables against prostate cancers and molecular pathways by which it works. For a complete and reliable review, primary and secondary resources were used, including original and review articles, books and government documents published until March 2018. Articles in duplicity and disconnected are not considered for review. SF is derived from glucoraphanin (4-methyl-sulfinyl-butyl-glucosinate), being one of the most commonly found isothiocyanates in vegetables from Brassica spp., especially in broccoli samples. In vitro studies indicate that SF induces apoptosis in a dependent or non-dependent way of androgens by transcription of tumor suppressor genes, oxidation response and higher expression of phase II enzymes in prostate cancer cells. Sulforaphane also decreases transcription of the nuclear factor kB and antiapoptotic proteins, expression of cyclin D2 and survivin and DNA synthesis, increases Nrf2 gene activity, interferes with genome compacting by inhibition of histone deacetylases, disrupts Hsp90 complexes, and it causes cell cycle arrest, mitosis interrupting, activating of caspases and mitochondria depolarization.
CONCLUSION: SF and cruciferous vegetables plays antioxidative and chemopreventive role, delay or blockade in vivo carcinogenesis, cause biochemical and epigenetic changes, prevent, delay, or reverse preneoplastic or advanced prostate lesions, and it frequently activate tumor cell death by intrinsic ways of apoptosis. These outcomes encourage the consumption of Brassica specimens, which could be easily achieved by the incorporation of food and vegetables rich in cruciferous isothiocyanates in the dietary.